http://www.engvid.com Learn how to use "therefore" and "thus" to show you have reached a conclusion. These transitions will improve your writing by helping you link ideas. In this lesson, we will look at transitions of conclusion and consequence to help ideas flow and improve our writing styles. I’ll also teach you how you can use words like "so", "then", "hence", and "as a result" for the same purpose. Watch the lesson, then take the quiz: http://www.engvid.com/writing-transitions-therefore-thus-consequently/
Hi, again. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I’m Adam. Today’s lesson is – actually, I had a few requests for it. So I’m not going to mention names right now because there are too many to mention. But some people asked me about transitions, again, specifically, "therefore" and "thus". But I figured I would do the whole package because they can all work together. If you’re writing essays, you can use more than one of these, more than two of these, especially for longer essays. So first, we’re going to look at the differences or similarities – as the case may be – of these words and when and how they are used. Okay?
So the words we’re looking at today are "therefore", "thus", "consequently", "so", "then, "hence", and the expression "as a result". Okay? So again, all of these are transitions. I’ll put it here.
So a little review. What is a transition? A transition is like a bridge that connects two ideas. Okay? So what are we connecting here? What are the ideas that we want to connect? We want to connect a logical conclusion. Okay? Or we want to connect a consequence. What is a "consequence"? A consequence is, basically, a result. So for example, in life, we make choices, we make decisions, and then, we have to live with the consequences, whatever those choices bring us. Okay? So there’s a very, very slight difference in these three words, especially. These are the three that I want you to use most on essays if you’re going to be writing essays. Okay? We use "therefore" – again, it’s more of a mathematical word, but we use it, obviously, to write, as well. When we have a premise, from there premise, we generally reach a conclusion. Now, what is a "premise"? A "premise" is an idea that we believe to be true. And because we believe it is true, from that truth we reach a conclusion. Okay? I think everybody knows a very famous "premise + conclusion" sentence. "I think" – premise – "I believe that I think, therefore I am." That’s the conclusion I reach. Because I think, I am. Okay. Don’t be confused. It’s not "because". Premise and conclusion, but I’m just trying to simplify it a little bit.
"Thus" means "result". Now, it’s a little bit different from "consequence". "Result" means a result of the last argument. Okay? And "consequence" is – again, it’s a result, but a consequence. Something’s going to happen as a result of the thing before. Now, it’s very, very important to remember, something had to be mentioned before you can use any of these words. Okay? All of these words and whatever sentence or clause or whatever comes after it is in relation to what came before. Okay? I said something before; this is my conclusion now. Or this is the result of what happened or this is the consequence.
More informally, we can use "so" also to talk about a consequence or a result. We use "then". So, "This happened. Then, I did this." Not "then" like time, like sequence. "Then" means more like, "This happened, so I did this." "This happened. Then, I did that as a result of the first thing."
Now, a lot of people ask me about this word, "hence". The first thing I will say is don’t use it. One, it’s a bit old-fashioned and a bit snobby. And two, most people don’t use it correctly anyway. I personally don’t like this word, but if you must use it, then, remember it’s also like a consequence. Use it instead of "thus" – probably instead of "therefore".
And of course, very casual, "as a result". Okay? So before we look at this – all of these individually, let’s look at some examples. "I am cold." Okay? This is the situation. "I am cold. Therefore, I’ll put on a coat." [Coughs] Excuse me. Actually, you know what? Let me change this. Sorry. I’ll put a period here. If I were going to use "therefore" with this, I would start a new sentence. All of these words can be used to start a sentence or mid-sentence. But some of them are better used to start. Some of them are better used in the middle. "I’m cold. Therefore, I’ll put on a coat."